(NAR) VOL. 6 NO. 4 / OCTOBER - DECEMBER 1995
KASAKALIKASAN or the Kasaganaan ng Sakahan at Kalikasan is a program of the government which aims to make Integrated Pest Management or IPM the standard approach to crop husbandry in the major rice, corn and vegetable growing areas in the Philippines. The Program builds on biological control as its foundation. Through season-long training, farmers become experts in their own fields by way of discovery, comparison and analysis.
By the year 1997, the program envisions to:
1. Provide 200,000 farmers with the knowledge and skills required to apply IPM principles in crop production;
2. Test and incorporate into the program’s training activities IPM methods for other crops of rice and corn-based farming systems; and
3. Establish the management and funding mechanisms for the continued education of farmers within local government units, non-government organizations at the provincial and municipal levels.
4. Establish the policy and legislative framework that will facilitate the long-term success of the program.
1. Promotion and Dissemination of IPM
a. Training of Field Workers as IPM Trainers (TOT)
The Training of IPM Trainers Course or TOT involves the training of extension workers from local government units and non-government organizations, including farmer-leaders, in targeted provinces. These trainings, which cover a whole cropping season (16 weeks), make use of the non-formal education approaches. Training participants are also required to facilitate the conduct of Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) at the same time they are undergoing the TOT.
For this program component, funding support will be provided for the operating expenses, travelling allowances, training service fee and other incidental expenses.
b. Farmer Field Schools
To ensure the continuity of the IPM method, a critical mass of 200,000 farmers will be trained through the season-long Farmer Field Schools or FFS. Each FFS has its own learning field containing a farmer-run comparative study of the IPM. Through experiential learning approaches, farmers become experts in their own fields. Provisions will be made to meet the costs incurred in the conduct of the FFS. These cover the travel and allowances of training facilitators, training service fees, food and accommodations, and supplies and materials for the FFS.
c. Training of IPM Trainers as IPM Specialists
This involves the training of 300 IPM field trainers selected to undergo intensive Specialists’ Training who will be deployed as IPM Fields Officers. These IPM Field Officers shall be responsible in conducting TOTs.
d. Farmer-to Farmer Training
Farmer volunteers who have undergone an IPM training will conduct as FFS among fellow farmers during the program period.
e. Training in Management and Agro-Ecosystem Analysis for IPM
This component involves the training of about 300 IPM field workers at the regional, provincial and municipal levels in agro-ecosystem analysis and management.
f. IPM Promotion Support Activities
The program will provide funds for the promotion of IPM among government agencies, local government units, public interest organizations, international organizations and the media. These activities will aim at generating political support and commitment in the development and implementation of local policy promoting IPM and other sustainable agricultural practices.
For all of the training activities mentioned, provisions will be made to cover all operating expenses to be incurred during their conduct, including travel, training service fees, land rentals, printing of reference materials and others.
2. IPM Investigations and Technology Development
a. Contract Research and Studies
This component involves the conduct of researches and studies by research institutions and universities to investigate specific IPM-related topics. The criteria for the awarding of contracts and approval of such studies will be drawn up by the IPM Research Commission. Provisions will be made by the program to finance this type of activity.
b. Participatory Action Research Activities
These are farmer-initiated research activities on such topics as local institutionalization, and technical experimentation in rat control, water management and cultural practices. Funds will be provided for the conduct of such research activities.
3. Program Implementation and Institutional Development
Under this component, provisions will be made to finance activities which aim at strengthening the capability of DA-Regional Field Offices, local government units (LGUs) and non-government organizations (NGOs) in carrying out effective local IPM plans and programs. Likewise, assistance will be provided to these implementors to augment their program administration funds.
Qualified Project Implementors
1. Department of Agriculture - Regional Field Offices
2. Local government units (LGUs) at the provincial and municipal levels
3. Non-government organizations (NGOs)
4. Other government agencies
5. Research institutions, state colleges and universities
6. Consulting firms
7. Farmers cooperatives and federations and other rural-based organizations
8. International organizations
Type of Funding Assistance
Owing to the nature of the projects to be implemented under KASAKALIKASAN, the funds to be released to the proponent implementors will be in the form of subsidies. This can either be a full subsidy, i.e., the financial assistance will cover all the expenses to be incurred during the conduct of the activity, or co-sharing scheme, wherein the implementor will put in its own equity in the form of cash or its non-cash equivalent.
Pursuant to Memorandum Order No. 126 dated May 3, 1993, the Department of Agriculture has been tasked to implement the KASAKALIKASAN Program. Under Section 4 of the same Memorandum Order, the National Agricultural and Fishery Council has been assigned to act as the central coordinating body of the program. As such, it will be tasked with administering the fund, providing support services to the other participating bodies and implementing the nationwide information dissemination system.
Procedures for Fund Availment
a. Project proposal
b. Memorandum of Agreement
2. Project Approval
a. The proponent implementor will submit a proposal to the NAFC through the Office of the National Program Officer of KASAKALIKASAN for evaluation and recommendation for approval.
b. The proposal is then endorsed to the Office of the NAFC Executive Director for approval.
c. Upon completion of all pertinent documents, processing will ensue prior to the release of funds.
3. Modes of Fund Transfer and Release
There are different modes of fund transfers that will be used by the Program:
a. Direct Release to the Proponent-Implementor
Under this mode, the NAFC will reserve its authority to release the fund directly to the proponent-implementor or to course it through the concerned DA-Regional Field Office.
In case of the former, the following will have to be considered:
i. Track record of the proponent-implementor
ii. Willingness and the capability of the proponent-implementor to directly handle the disbursement of the fund
The proponent-implementor will be responsible for the disbursement and liquidation of the financial assistance.
b. Release through the DA-Regional Field Office
In the case where the funds cannot be released directly to the proponent-implementor, funds will be transferred through the DA-Regional Field Office. Under this mode, there are two options for fund disbursement scheme:
i. Direct disbursement by the DA-Regional Field Office; or
ii. Subsequent fund transfer to the proponent implementor
c. Release through the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR)
Funds will be transferred to the Bureau of Agricultural Research to finance technical research proposals. Under this mode, each proposal will have to undergo evaluation and recommendation for approval by the IPM Research Commission (IPM-RC). Approval of the research proposals will be the responsibility of the Central Management Committee.
Fund disbursement by the proponent-implementor will be in accordance with the approved work and financial plan which will be included in the project proposal. Each proponent-implementor will be required to submit a report of disbursement to the NAFC as liquidation of the fund, duly audited by their resident/external auditor.
Realignment of Project Funds and Utilization of Savings
The NAFC will be the approving authority regarding the realignment of a portion of the project funds (released by the NAFC). The NAFC will be guided by the following policies in approving realignment requests:
i. that the request will be accompanied by an itemized list of expenditures;
ii. that the realignment will be used by the same proponent-implementor for the related project/activity to improve/compliment the operations of the original project/activity; and
iii. that the realignment will not result in additional funding by the NAFC.
All project savings will have to be reported and returned to the NAFC by the proponent-implementor. However, the proponent-implementor has the option to use the savings for activities which will improve or support the operation of the original activity/project.
In case of utilization of the savings by the proponent-implementor, the following documents are required, subject to NAFC’s approval:
i. Letter of request for utilization of savings
ii. Itemized list of expenditures where the savings will be used.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring of the KASAKALIKASAN projects and activities will be done by the Office of the National Program Officer in coordination with the Central Program Secretariat at the NAFC. The Training and Technology Development Support Team (TTDST) headed by the Bureau of Plant Industry, and its secretariat, will also be involved in the technical supervision of the training activities at the field level.
Periodic evaluation of the KASAKALIKASAN will be done to assess the impact and sustainability of the program in the countryside. Results and information that may be gathered during the conduct of these evaluations can be used as basis or guides for the planning and improvement of the program’s guidelines for implementation.
This order shall take effect upon the date of its signing.
Adopted: 18 Apr. 1994
(SGD.) ROBERTO S. SEBASTIAN
Secretary, Department of Agriculture and
Chairman, KASAKALIKASAN Executive Committee